Plant propagation is the process of creating new plants. There are two types of plant propagation through which this can be achieved. New plants are created through either sexual or asexual propagation. Each of the methods have their own advantages, and each method involves different parts of the plant.
Sexual propagation occurs when the pollen unites with the egg. Genes are contributed by each of the parents to create a seed, which grows into a new plant. This method of propagation involves the reproductive parts of plants: flowering parts in angiosperms, cones in conifers, etc.
Sexual propagation has several advantages. For certain plants, it may be cheaper, faster, and/or easier than other methods. It minimizes the chances of disease transmission from the parents to the child plant. It may be the only way to create new varieties and to ensure hybrid vigor. For some species, it is the only viable propagation methods.
Asexual propagation occurs when part of a parent plant is taken to create a new plant. When this method is used, the child plant is genetically identical to the parent plant. This method of propagation involves the vegetative parts of the plant: roots, stems, buds, and leaves.
Asexual propagation is advantageous in certain situations. It may be the easiest or fastest way to propagate certain types of plants. It bypasses the juvenile stage of plant growth. And it is the only way one can perpetuate certain cultivars.